By Swami Harshananda
Sometimes transliterated as: Gangesa, GaGgeZa, Gangesha
Gaṅgeśa is also known as Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya (A. D. 1200). He was the brightest luminary among the logicians of Bengal who started a new school called ‘Navya-nyāya’. He belonged to Mithilā in North Bihar. He wrote only one work, the Tattvacintāmani in which he has dealt with only four pramāṇas accepted by the Nyāya-sutras of the sage Gautama. They are:
His discussions on the anumāna aspect of knowledge received great attention among the scholars, thus developing an entirely new school of thought. A very large number of commentaries and sub-commentaries have been composed on this single work. Among them, the commentary of Raghunātha Śiromaṇi (A. D. 1500) and the sub-commentaries on the same became extremely popular among the scholars of Bengal. This work has major contribution in the direction of linguistic notations than in metaphysics.
- Pramāṇas are the means or methods of knowledge.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore