From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Sandhi literally means an ‘agreement’.

Sandhi as per Political Science

According to the treatises on religious political science, a king can adopt six methods of policy. They are:

  1. Sandhi - agreement or peace-treaty
  2. Vigraha - taking a hostile attitude
  3. Āsana - indifference
  4. Yāna - preparing to attack the enemy
  5. Sariśraya - taking shelter under a more powerful king
  6. Dvaidhībhāva - adopting a dual policy

Conditions of Sandhi for King

A king is advised to enter into sandhi[1] with other kings when:

  • His own kingdom is beset with natural calamities
  • There are more powerful enemies whom he cannot cope with
  • He should thus wait for better days

Rules of Sandhi

Sandhi is not advisable with kings who are equal or weaker in strength. In sandhi, the king can offer his army or treasury or cede a part of his territory to avoid total defeat or submission.

Types of Sandhi

Several varieties of sandhis, from four up to sixteen, are described in works like Kāmandaklya[2] and Agnipurāna.[3]

Sandhi as per Sanskrit Grammar

In Sanskrit grammar, the word sandhi means coalescence of two letters coming into immediate contact. For instance, when the letter i comes in front of a, they coalesce into e, as in para + īśa = pareśa.

Sandhi as per Ayurveda

In Ayurveda, it refers to the joints in limbs like the hands and the feet.


  1. Sandhi means peace-treaty.
  2. Kāmandaklya 9.2-18
  3. Agnipurāna 240
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore