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By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Caturopayas, CaturopAyAs, Caturopaayaas

Caturopāyās literally means ‘the four means adopted by a king'.

A king is given a path of dealing with other kings or enemies who causes trouble. A wise ruler should adopt the caturopāyas or four means to handle the enemies judiciously. These Caturopāyās are:

  1. Sāma - Reconciliation
  2. Dāna - Yielding something to appease him
  3. Bheda - Bringing about a split in the enemy’s ranks
  4. Daṇḍa - Going to war


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore